CADRE Comments

A Rational Look at Christianity; Basing Reason in Truth

The Ideology of Scientism (part 1)

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            Colin Blakemore (Neuroscience, Oxford) writes an article entitled, "Science is Just One Gene Away from Defeating Religion." He sees religion and science as opponents in a chess match. One wonders, is it only a chess match and not a war that engage science and religion? Thus advances in science are automatically viewed as detraction from religion. He intimates this when he says that the discoveries of Watson and Crick were a defeat for religion because previously life was a mystery that implied spiritual magic.[1]  He wants to see religion as some long ago thing that science is beating. He says, “Charles Darwin's theory of evolution was certainly a vital move in that chess game - if not checkmate. In an interview for God and the Scientists, to be broadcast tonight in Channel 4's series on Christianity, Richard Dawkins declares: ‘Darwin removed the main argument for God's existence.’"[2] Why should any success of science be an automatic defeat for religion? Religion is not about understanding how the physical world works, yet he tells us:
Science has rampaged over the landscape of divine explanation, provoking denial or surrender from the church. Christian leaders, even the Catholic church, have reluctantly accommodated the discoveries of scientists, with the odd burning at the stake and excommunication along the way… The process of Christian accommodation is a bit like the fate of fieldmice confronted by a combine harvester, continuously retreating into the shrinking patch of uncut wheat.Ten days ago, on Darwin's birthday, Richard Dawkins, Archbishop of Atheism, and Richard Harries, former Bishop of Oxford, conducted a public conversation in the Oxford University Museum, where Bishop Sam Wilberforce and Darwin's champion, Thomas Henry Huxley, had debated Darwin's ideas in 1860. The two Richards were more civilised. But inevitably, Richard H claimed for religion a territory that science can never invade, a totally safe sanctuary for Christian fieldmice. Science is brilliant at questions that start "how", but religion is the only approach to questions that start "why". Throughout history, human beings have asked those difficult "why" questions.[3]
Isn’t this really a matter of how we look at it? Since ministers supported Darwin and argued that his new scientific discovery was actually a help to the Gospel,[4] it can hardly be called a defeat. It can’t be science’s job to bully religion so what is really going on here?
            In any discussion about God in the modern world theology automatically runs into conflict with science. Both God and science are vying for the same slot as umpire of reality. God was formerly understood as the authority, the power, the basis of all, God was the one who spoke “the word from on high.” Now there’s another umpire. Science seeks to produce a limit on God. Science tells us the way the world works thus science sets the rules for truth in modernity, perhaps even to the point of ruling out God? We are told by many voices that God is merely an ideology. Feuerbach said God was the mask of Money.[5] God is the involuntary projection of human attributes.[6] Marx wasted no time in backing it up by codifying it into doctrine. I’m going to bracket discussion of God for now since we all know the criticism that God is just an ideology. What about science, the challenger for the job of umpire? Modern thought tells us science is pure objective observation of facts and direct proof of all that is reality. Doesn’t the implication of masking ideology come with that territory? When we examine the nature of modern science, especially in so far as it is used in opposition to belief in God, we find that there is no pure objective science, unsullied by the ideological impulse to impose a truth regime upon reality, rather than to merely umpire.
            But first this raises the question, if science is not this pure unsullied ideal of fact finding, what is science? Science as it is taught to the beginning student in her freshman year may not be the same as science defined by the top ranks of professional scientists in their dealings with each other. One example of the way science is introduced, Christopher G. Morris, Dictionary of Science and Technology: Science is systematic observations about the workings of the natural world:

1. the systematic observation of the natural events and conditions in order to discover facts about them and to formulate laws and principles based on these facts. 2. the organized body of knowledge that is derived from such observations and that can be verified or tested by further investigation. 3. any specific branch of this general body of knowledge, such as biology, physics, geology, or astronomy.[7]
As for a general or popular definition, Webster defines science:
: the state of knowing : knowledge as distinguished from ignorance or misunderstanding
a : a department of systematized knowledge as an object of study science of theology> b : something (as a sport or technique) that may be studied or learned like systematized knowledge science>
a : knowledge or a system of knowledge covering general truths or the operation of general laws especially as obtained and tested through scientific method b : such knowledge or such a system of knowledge concerned with the physical world and its phenomena : natural science
: a system or method reconciling practical ends with scientific laws science and an art>
capitalized : christian science
See science defined for English-language learners »
Number one would include theology. The circularity of number 4 should be apparent. Number 2 does include theology, and also can include anything that has been rigorously systematized. We know this by the tag phrase “have it down to a science.” In other words when you tell someone “you have that down to a science” you can say that about anything from cooking to martial arts. Number three is one that deals with our usual understanding of science, what we mean by “science” when we argue with atheists about science. That is not the only form of knowledge, or “there’s no scientific evidence for God.”
a : knowledge or a system of knowledge covering general truths or the operation of general laws especially as obtained and tested through scientific method b : such knowledge or such a system of knowledge concerned with the physical world and its phenomena : natural science
We all know what we mean by science. We all know that science is a pure and true endeavor that is derived from observations of fact so it can’t be misguided. Yet once we ask “what is the nature of science?” and begin to really study it we find it’s not all that clear. In fact there seems to be an epistemological crisis brewing that threatens to pull out all the nails in everything that modernity has so carefully nailed down. For example how do we know which version of “science’ the fist two definitions above are discussing?
            It might be good to consult other sources of definition. There is no official Science Bible to turn to and get the very most authoritative ruling on the matter. We can consult other text books. University of Georgia Geology Department puts out an online page for students that include many definitions. It moves from most standard to “revealing.” Dr. Sheldon Gottlieb in his lecture series, “Religion and Science, Best of Enemies, Worst of Friends,”
Science is an intellectual activity carried on by humans that is designed to discover information about the natural world in which humans live and to discover the ways in which this information can be organized into meaningful patterns. A primary aim of science is to collect facts (data). An ultimate purpose of science is to discern the order that exists between and amongst the various facts. [8]
The statement “discern the order that exists between and among the various facts,” allows for social science such as sociology, psychology, history, economics, and yet it also opens the door to metaphysics. The statement itself limits science to the natural world, thus hinting at a domain of science. Yet the it also leaves unanswered just what that domain is. For social scientists the limits will be much looser than for physical sciences. Another statement about the nature of science pins it down to the natural world: “Science involves more than the gaining of knowledge. It is the systematic and organized inquiry into the natural world and its phenomena. Science is about gaining a deeper and often useful understanding of the world.”[9] Of course science is about a deeper understanding “of the world.” What does that mean? Is it about understanding the world of metaphysics? Or is it about understanding the world of politics, or the world of meta ethics? What kind of understanding? Is that quotation limited to the “natural” world? Does it mean all “worlds” of our conceptualizing? The more varied the definition the looser they become. We see the definitions drifting away form the concept of systematic understandings of the workings of the physical world and nothing more. It’s in those “stretches” of definition that are probably designed to allow flexible field of study that we see creeping in various agendas such as the ruination of religion. This is strictly speaking not a goal of science, not even part of science’s business. These kinds of hobby horses are inherently part of science as long as it is not kept to a rigid dogmatic limitation. I am not arguing for such a rigid dogmatic limitation in the understanding of science. I am arguing for clearly identifying the distinction between science and it’s “others.” Being aware we should be leery of assuming that science is the only form of knowledge.
            As important as deciding what science is and what it’s not, is an understanding of it’s domain. Of course domain will be related to the nature of science and thus definition of what science is will set an understanding of its domain. For example, if science is limited to the systemic observation of the workings of the physical world then it’s domain is the physical world. That means statements issued in the name of science about the lack of realms beyond the physical and their alleged non existence are departures form the scientific mission and bleed into realms of philosophy and metaphysics. If the purveyors of science as the only form of knowledge want to try and include philosophy in science as a section of scientific observation, then they must also accept philosophy as a whole as a valid endeavor and a potentially valid form of knowledge. Stephen J. Gould, a major voice in science of the late twentieth century, proposed a concept of division between science and religion called Non-overlapping Magisteria, or NOMA. The idea is that science and religion are about different aspects of reality. Their teaching authority (magisteria) is not competing so they don’t overlap
Science tries to document the factual character of the natural world, and to develop theories that coordinate and explain these facts. Religion, on the other hand, operates in the equally important, but utterly different, realm of human purposes, meanings, and values—subjects that the factual domain of science might illuminate, but can never resolved.[10]
Yet Gould’s idea has not gone unchallenged. Richard Dawkins challenged the notion on the grounds that the areas of interest do overlap. Yet he didn’t just say ok let’s look at the Genesis creation story, the obvious point of overlap. No he claimed for science all territory including moral ground. It’s not just an overlap but there’s no ground left to assign to religion. He speaks as though science gets to control all of reality, including ethical theory. See the chapter on ethics for an understanding of the problem here.
More generally it is completely unrealistic to claim, as Gould and many others do, that religion keeps itself away from science's turf, restricting itself to morals and values. A universe with a supernatural presence would be a fundamentally and qualitatively different kind of universe from one without. The difference is, inescapably, a scientific difference. Religions make existence claims, and this means scientific claims.
The same is true of many of the major doctrines of the Roman Catholic Church. The Virgin Birth, the bodily Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary, the Resurrection of Jesus, the survival of our own souls after death: these are all claims of a clearly scientific nature. Either Jesus had a corporeal father or he didn't. This is not a question of "values" or "morals"; it is a question of sober fact. We may not have the evidence to answer it, but it is a scientific question, nevertheless. You may be sure that, if any evidence supporting the claim were discovered, the Vatican would not be reticent in promoting it. [11]
He argues that because we don’t have a clear idea of when the soul emerged our pre-human ancestors then of course the idea is absurd and we can’t assert that there is a soul. He says: “Well, what are these two distinctly different domains, these "Nonoverlapping Magisteria" that should snuggle up together in a respectful and loving concordat? Gould again: "The net of science covers the empirical universe: what is it made of (fact) and why does it work this way (theory). The net of religion extends over questions of moral meaning and value." While Dawkins seems to take the tact that there’s nothing beyond the material so therefore if Science gets the material realm then it has everything. Of course it doesn’t dawn upon him that there might be other ways of looking at the same aspects of life. In so making this “in your face” attack upon all religion Dawkins reveals clearly an ideological sense of “all or nothing.” Gould was not as aggressive as Dawkins, but then he wasn’t as ideological either. Yet he did make provision for the one obvious point of overlap in the conflict about Genesis fomented by creationism. He dealt with it by turning to the Catholic Church which regards evolution as not a problem and which does not insist upon the literal nature of six day creation. Science has the authority thorough its power as systematic debunker of bad ideas to demonstrate the falsehood of such literalism.[12] Gould used the Catholic Church to resolve the problem. The Catholics had never had the problems with evolution that Protestants had. They had made statements to this effect historically. On  Oct 22, 1996 Pope John Paul II reinforced this as Gould points out. He points to the document “truth cannot contradict truth,” the Pontifical Academy of Sciences. He then deals with creationism by writing it off as fanatical and unscientific. [13] Dawkins is not content. He wants to remove religion form reality. Thus he asserts that since physical reality is all there is, and science is about physical reality, there’s nothing left for religion to be about. While it is true that the scientific domain is limited to the mechanical workings of the physical world that does not, however, mean that it can move on from that position and assume that all the other view points are under its domain.
            Science is limited to the physical domain and it is also limited to a naturalistic framework. It’s not an automatic qualification to denounce unseen realms. Areas of concept that defy our direct empirical observation are beyond our understanding that is not proof in itself that they don’t exist. To then assert that they must not because knowledge of them is not rendered through science is a philosophical statement and not a scientific one. Neil deGrasse Tyson in his article “The Perimeter of Ignorance” demarcates the domain of science by observing that where scientists run out of factual material they evoke God. Where factual knowledge ends science’s domain ends, but science can keep extending the domain by continuing to seek knowledge.[14] That staves off belief because God is evoked where knowledge runs out. That is a wrong concept because it imposes the wrong view of religion, that religion is failed primitive science. Tyson’s concept of the perimeter of ignorance helps us understand the nature of science and its proper boundary in relation to other topics. The problem with it is that it seems to imply that religion only takes over where we have no facts, thus implying that religion is also about understanding the workings of the world but it just doesn’t proceed by collecting facts. That may not be Tyson’s true concept. Tyson’s argument turns out to be a prefect example of the thesis; it’s really a tirade against intelligent design. So he’s willing to move beyond what we can know about the workings of the physical world to explain what the working of the physical world is not predicated upon. Not that I am defending intelligent design. I am neither an intelligent design advocate nor am I a creationist. What I do seek is to separate the conflict between science and religion in such a way as to understand what is really conflicted. Often times what people take to be science is really one of it’s “others,” the ideologies that ride on the coat tails of science.
What many take to be a conflict between religion and science is really something else. It is a conflict between religion and materialism. Materialism regards itself as scientific, and indeed is often called “scientific materialism,” even by its opponents, but it has no legitimate claim to be part of science. It is, rather, a school of philosophy, one defined by the belief that nothing exists except matter, or, as Democritus put it, “atoms and the void.”

However, there is more to materialism than this cold ontological negation. For many, scientific materialism is not a bloodless philosophy but a passionately held ideology. Indeed, it is the ideology of a great part of the scientific world. Its adherents see science as having a mission that goes beyond the mere investigation of nature or the discovery of physical laws. That mission is to free mankind from superstition in all its forms, and especially in the form of religious belief.[15]
One of the major “others” of science is materialism. Materialism is an ideology that tends to be preferred by many scientific types, and thus is often confused with science, or accompanies it in the world views of those who do science or a living. It often forms the basic assumption made in the sciences about domain and about the nature of things. At this point it would be good to ask about the nature of ideology.
What is ideology?
            Webster defines ideology as “visionary theorizing.” Secondly, it defines ideology as a “systematic body of concept especially about human life or culture.” Here it makes three subdivisions: “a :  a systematic body of concepts especially about human life or culture b :  a manner or the content of thinking characteristic of an individual, group, or culture c :  the integrated assertions, theories and aims that constitute a sociopolitical program.” [16] So we see it’s theorizing, it’s not the great fortress of facts that some wish the mystique of science to imply. An ideology is a social movement or a political movement. Another dictionary brings this out more clearly:
the body of doctrine, myth, belief, etc., that guides an individual, social movement, institution, class, or large group.
such a body of doctrine, myth, etc., with reference to some political and social plan, as that of fascism, along with the devices for putting it into operation.
Philosophy .
the study of the nature and origin of ideas.
a system that derives ideas exclusively from sensation.
theorizing of a visionary or impractical nature. [17]

According to John Adams Napoleon popularized the word “ideology,” which was used by the French philosophes. They used it in a positive light to highlight their own ideas, and in a negative sense to characterize folly of others. Adams said that ideology was an attempt to explain reality because it was too complex.[`18] According to Terry Eagleton there is no one single meaning of the term, yet he seems to have clear enough idea what he means by it. It’s very common to find Marxists and other kinds of social and political revolutionaries using it as though it means the legitimating story telling that the dominate structure uses to justify its power. So ideology is what the other guys say to make themselves seem right. As Eagleton points out, does that mean the rebelling faction doesn’t have their own ideology? They never exaggerate or justify but always tell the truth? He says, “If, for example, ideology means any set of beliefs motivated by social interests, then it can’t simply signify the dominate forms of thought in a society.”[19] Ideology is what the other guy has, he claims. No one owns up to being ideological. Then in his review of Dawkins’s book The God Delusion it’s pretty clear where Eagleton thinks Dawkins can be placed in relation to ideology:

Card Carrying Rationalists like Dawkins, who is the nearest thing to a professional atheist that we have had since Bertrand Russell are in one sense the least well equipped to understand what they castigate, since they don’t believe there is anything there to be understood, or at least anything worth understanding. This is why they invariably come up with vulgar caricatures of religious faith that would make a first year theology student wince.[20]

 For practical purpose I defined ideology thusly: One idea that defines the world and determines how one sees everything filtering all perceptions through the lens of its truth regime.

Ideology and Science

            It seems that from the upper echelons of the world of books to the mid level management of opinion leaders in movements such as new atheism, to the popular level of the internet and message boards, a myth has spread far and wide that science is the only form of knowledge. James Felton Keith quotes the architect of physicalism Otto Neurath as saying: “according to phsyicalism the language of physics is the universal language of science and any knowledge can be brought back to the statements on physical objects.”[21] In 1964 George Richmond Walker wrote: “the thesis that art is important because, like science it gives us knowledge of reality has not faired well in modern philosophy [among logical positivists and the analytic school] “…all cognitive experience belongs to science and they hold that the business of the philosopher is to analyze the methods, terms, and laws of science in order to clarify their logical structure and empirical content.” Even though this was written in the Bulletin of Atomic Scientists way backing 1964,[22] it apparently has filtered down the masses. We find the whole movement of new atheism thriving on this idea and the mid level management of that movement and the popular level are abuzz with it. As Mark Thomas of the popular level internet group “godless geeks” tells us:
Our understanding of the world around us, and our abilities to predict what will happen are based on naturalism — the basis of science.  Naturalism is also the basis for how all people live their lives most of the time.
To be explicit, modern science relies on methodological naturalism.  This means that science doesn’t incorporate any supernatural or religious assumptions and doesn’t seek any religious or supernatural explanations.  Science is the use of evidence to construct testable explanations and predictions of natural phenomena, as well as the knowledge generated through this process.  Science also depends on mathematics, which likewise has no religious or supernatural component.[23]
On the strictly popular level, tells us “Science is the only form of knowledge. There is no way to know something without it being scientific in some way.”[24] Stephen Barr comments:
            From the positivists this is to be expected. That’s what their movement was about, philosophy embraced that it’s not science and seeking to gain its shore of control through the priesthood of knowledge. That Walker analyzes the fortunes of art as an epistemic resource is merely the valid job of a top level thinker in the world of letters, it’s what they do. When popular sources start saying things like “naturalism is the basis of science” then we have cause for concern. Naturalism is not the basis for how we know things nor is it the basis of science. Naturalism is a philosophy and an ideology and science is the basis of it.[225]
I can understand why one would say that science is naturalistic, because science must assume naturalistic means of knowing. There’s a big difference in saying that science must make naturalistic assumptions and that “naturalism” is the basis of science! The poppy chock that “there is no way to know anything unless it’s scientific” is just popular twaddle. I know what I had for breakfast without using science. They are making a leap form “scientific Knowing” to “naturalism” as though they are the same thing. Naturalism is an ideological understanding of the world. If science is ordinary and so all encompassing those ordinary observations that have no systematic nature are part of science then religious belief is part of science too. These are philosophical statements they are not scientific statements. They represent a philosophical doppelganger of science that rides on its coattails. Science is not a sweeping proclamation on the nature of all reality.
            The problem is no one actually sticks to this. People who do science for a living, people who just love science and read about it in their spare time, as well as people who know almost nothing about it other than that society reveres it as the umpire of reality, all confuse the ends of science with their own agendas. They all baptize their own projects, beliefs, ideologies and prejudices in the light of science and confuse the goals and ends of the latter with the former. Richard Dawkins confuses the goals of science with his own distaste for religion. Others try to expand science into he realm of ethics, while still others regard it as the only form of knowledge and use it as a replacement for metaphysics and epistemology (all the while denouncing metaphysics and epistemology as “stupid philosophy that makes stuff up’). It’s hard to find pure scientific motives and at the same time stay within the domain of science which is firmly planted in the department of “workings of the physical world.” Those who love and do science are humans and they are prejudiced and biased and they mix their own motives, agendas and ideologies with the doing of science. For this reason science is a relative human construct. It is not the only form of knowledge and it is not the arbiter of all reality. These ideologies that attach themselves to science are the “others” of science.
            E.O. Wilson’s Consilience: The unity of Knowledge, is a prefect example of what I’m talking about in terms of mistaking one’s ideological goals for science. Of course Wilson is one of the major thinkers in science in this century and at the end of the last century. Consilience is perhaps his Magnum Opus.  In this work Wilson shows us his path and his ambitions that mark out exactly the syndrome I’m talking about. Even the subtitle is a frank admission that he’s reducing all forms of knowledge to one. He points out that in his childhood he loved the classification system of ants. He was very attracted to the study of ants. He read about the classification system of Carolus Linnacus, as a boy and was greatly impressed. Then a bit latter he discovered evolution. He writes about that auspicious moment: “Then I discovered evolution. Suddenly--that is not too strong a word—I saw the world in a whole new way…” an insight that he describes as an “epiphany.”[26] He gives us a key to understanding his fascination. He says that the brilliance of Ernst Mayr’s 1942 Systematics and the Origin of the Species, “by giving a theoretical structure to natural history, it vastly expanded the Linnaean enterprise. A tumbler fell somewhere in my mind and a door opened to a new world.”[27] That is a wonderful description of that process whereby new vistas dawn in the mind and one suddenly realizes “a whole new world lies before me with this…” such was my own feeling when I first discovered Bruce Wiltshire’s book Metaphsyics,[28] or when I read William Faulkner for the first time (Light in August). Both were in my sophomore year of high school. Nor is there anything wrong with evolution or Darwin and gaining a larger perspective on science and the world through reading Darwin. Yet it does seem as though he just doesn’t want to stop classifying all of reality until he’s classified everything his way. This is so because he argues for putting everyone under one label, science is the only form of knowledge.
            He says:
The enhancement, growing steadily more sophisticated, has dominated scientific thought ever since. In modern physics its focus has been the unification of all the forces of nature—electro weak, strong and gravitation—the hoped for consolidation of theory so tight as to turn the science into a “perfect” system of thought which by the sheer weight of  evidence and logic is made resistant to revision. But the spell of enchantment extends to other fields as well, and in the minds of a few it reaches beyond into the social sciences, and still further as I will explain latter, to touch the humanities.[29]
He’s taking the notion of science organizing our understanding of reality to the point of redefining our knowledge and subsuming the understanding of other fields. The term consilience is defined by Webster’s as “the linking together of principles from different disciplines especially when forming a comprehensive theory.” There’s not necessarily anything wrong with a comprehensive theory. Yet is does seem subsuming of other fields and thus probably doesn’t consider other view points very well. Wilson is not an atheist. He speaks of his view of all embracing scientific view freeing him from the confines of Christian fundamentalism, but having been passionately religious in his youth, he turns to the metaphor or symbol of Ionian thought in science as the new way for those seeking redemption from purposelessness. He also speaks of the wonderful feeling of the taste of unification in metaphysics; clearly exceeding the domain of science as studying the workings of the natural world. He doesn’t see himself as anti-religious but as offering a way for those who see more than religious traditions allow.[30]  Perhaps that is a valid aim for science. On the other hand the temptation to play God and control all other forms of knowledge is clearly a strong one for some and it’s made its mark in the new atheist movement. Why should we have a unified knowledge that subsumes other fields? That’s at best “totalizing” and at worst fascistic. As Arthur Warmoth observes, “the idea of the unity of knowledge seems to be a will-of-the-wisp that has periodically led western philosophy into the dangerous night bogs of hubris.”[31] He understands Wilson to seek the reduction of all meaning to one definition controlled by one discipline, the sciences. The problem there is that there distinction between making meaning coherent and making it “unified.”
It is certainly true that induction, deduction, abstraction, and the exploration of causal relationships have permitted natural science in the Greco-Christian West to conquer territories beyond the reach of the scientific efforts of any other culture. The natural sciences have been uniquely successful in understanding nature. However, there are other meanings of "meaning" that have proven important in human intellectual life across many cultures. It is useful, and it fits into the paradigm of contemporary cognitive science, to see these different types of meaning as different types of patterns of abstraction that can be used to order sensory data.[32]
Wilson is just one thinker, but he is not alone in his attack on forms of knowledge other than science. He did, however spawn a whole sub-discipline that seems more ideological than scientific: Wilson started sociobiology and then it transmogrified into evolutionary psychology.

[1] Colin Blackemore, "Science is Just One Gene Away from Defeating Religion." The Guardian.  Originally from the Observer. 21st of Febuary, 2009. On Line: 
accessed 10/29/13.
[2] Ibid.
[3] Ibid.
[4] David C. Lindberg,  Ronald L.Numbers, ed.,  God and Nature: Historical Essays on the Encounter Between Christianity and Science. Berkeley, Los Angelis: University of California Press, 1986. 372-374.
[5] Van A. Harvey, Feuerbach and The Interpretation of Religion, Carmbridge: Press Syndicate for the University of Cambridge, Cambridge Studies in Religion and Critical Thought, 1995/1997, 4.
Harvey is professor emeritus, taught religious studies at Stanford Univesity. His Ph.D. from Yale in 1957. His thesis supervisor was H.Richard Neibhur.
[6] Ibid., 25.
[7] Christopher G. Morris, Academic Press Dictionary of Science & Technology quoted on in “some definitions of science” addendum to Geol 1122 “what is and isn’t science” Universlity of Georgia Department of Geology, on line resource, URL:   visited 2/11/11.
[8] Sheldon Gottlieb, quoted on the University of Georgia  addendum Ibid. Originally from his lecture Harbinger Symposium, “Religion and Science the best of enemies the worst of Friends,” Mobile,. Alabama, April 3d 1997
[9] University of Georgia Addendum GEOL 1122  originally: from the Multicultural History of Science page at Vanderbilt University.
[10] Stephen Jay Gould, Rocks of Ages: Science and Religion in the Fullness of Life, New York: Ballantine Books, 1999, 3.
[11] Richard Dawkins, “When Religion Steps on Science’s Turf: The Alledged Seperation Between the Two is not So Tidy.” Council for Secular Humanism, Free Inquiry Magazine  volume 18, no 2, no date given. Online publication URL:  accessed 9/19/13.
The article is credited to volume 18, no 2 but when I look up the issue sperately the article is not there. Yet it is online at the page URL above.
[12] Stephen J. Gould, “Non Overlapping Magisteria,” Leonardo’s Mountain of Clams and the Diet of Worms,
New York: Harmony Books, 1998, 269-283.
[13] Ibid.
[14] Neil deGrasse Tyson, “The Perimeter of Ignorance,” Natural History, Nov. 2005, on line copy: URL:
[15] Stephen Barr, “Retelling the Story of Science,” First Things,  March (2003) on line version:
[16] Marion-Webster’s dictionary online, “Ideology,” URL:  accessed 9/19/13.
[17], American Heritage new Dictionary of Cultural Literacy. 3d, edition,Houghton Mifflin Company 2005, online resource, URL:  accessed 9/19/13
[18] Jospeh J. Ellis, Founding Brothers: The Revolutionary Generation, New York, New York: Vintage, 2005, 238.
Adams was explaining to Jefferson that he had been too idealistic in accepting all the French revolution has to offer and the meaning of the term “ideology” indicated a false infatuation with things only partially understood, that Jefferson was carried away with the romance and was too open to the entire program of the philsophes without understand it well enough.
[19] Terry Eagleton, Ideology, London, Brooklyn New York: Verso, 1991, 2.
Eagleton is professor of English at Lancaster University  (England) and is a major literary critic.
[20] Terry Eagleton, “Lunging, Flailing, Mispunching,” London Review of Books, vol 28, no 20 (19 October) 2006, 32-34.
[21] James Felton Keith, “Integrationalism: Essays on the Rationale of Abnundance.” Detroit, Michigan: Think ENXIT press, no date listed, online URL:,+the+language%22#v=onepage&q=%22According%20to%20physicalism%2C%20the%20language%22&f=false   visited 1/11/11.
[23] Mark Thomas, “Why Atheism?: History and Development of Science and Scientific Naturalism.” Web page URL:  visited 1/11/11.
Thomas apparently has some kind of job in computers and belongs to an organization called “godless geeks.” I quote him because his view illustrates the thinking at the popular internet level.
[24], Wiki Answers.”Is science the supreme form of Knowledge?”  on line resource: URL:  visited 1/11/11.
[25] Stephen M. Barr, “Re-Telling The Story of Science,” Op cit.
[26] E.O. Wilson, Consilience: The Unity of Knowledge. New York:Vintage  Books, division of Random House,First edition, 4.
Wilson is two time winner of Pulitzer prize, he was biologoy professor at Harvard. His specialty is myrmecology, the study of ants, he is the world’s leading expert. He is very well known and has won many awards for his popular level writing on science and humanism.
[27] Ibid. 4
[28] Bruce Wiltshire, Metaphysics: An Introduction to Philosophy. Indianapolis, Indiana: Bobbs-Merrill Co., First edition, 1969.
[29] Wilson, Consilience…Op Cit., 5
[30] Ibid., 6-7.
[31] Arthur Warmoth, “Reflections on Concilience,” Comments on revew of E.O. Wilson’s Concilience.
On line resource,  accessed 9/22/13.
Warmoth is professor of psychology at Sonoma State University.
[32] Ibid.

  photo schweitzer.jpg
Albert Schweitzer (1875-1965)
Foresaw the death of civilization

The problem is that among the forces gathered under the rubric “scientism” is a movement that seeks the abolition of humanity, that movement is “transhumanism.” In his article Lawler writes of how Wieseltier exposed Scientism as the major force seeking to destroy the arts and humanities and the crucial reasons why we must not allow this to happen. He speaks of transhumanism:
No one can deny, for example, that the movement known as transhumanism aims at “the abolition of man,” at the overcoming of the distinction between man and machine on pretty much the machine’s terms. Every competent scientist and humanist knows it will never achieve its goal, as Marxism never achieved anything like the “communism as the end of history” Marx fancifully described. But humanists are right to fear what can be lost on an ideological mission impossible.[1]
In fairness to transhumanists they see themselves as seeking to enhance human intellectual abilities. They point to the age old desire to mirror human life in after life as a wish for continuance; they also point to renaissance humanist classics such as Pico della Mirandola’s Oration on the Dignity of Man where he says “it will be in your power to descend to the lower, brutish forms of life; you will be able, through your own decision, to rise again to the superior orders whose life is divine.”[2] So they are not totally insensitive to humanist standards. Yet we know Picco was not a transhumanist. Bostrom begins reckoning their history from the 1920s (after trances his kindred spirits form caveman days to the Nietzsche) British biochemist J.B.S. Haldane published the essay Daedalous; or, Science and the future. That essay argued for the benefit of controlling our own genetics.[3] The term “transhuman” may have first been used by James Hughes in this 2004 work Citizen Cyborg: Why Democratic Societies Must Respond to the Redesigned Human of the Future.[4]
               Among the topics engaged by transhumanism we findradical extension of human health-span, eradication of disease, elimination of unnecessary suffering, and augmentation of human intellectual, physical, and emotional capacities.[5] The list goes on with space colonization and the possibility of creating superintelligent machines, along with other potential developments that could profoundly alter the human condition.[6]  But what is the price for these “improvements?”
Transhumanists view human nature as a work-in-progress, a half-baked beginning that we can learn to remold in desirable ways. Current humanity need not be the endpoint of evolution. Transhumanists hope that by responsible use of science, technology, and other rational means we shall eventually manage to become posthuman, beings with vastly greater capacities than present human beings have.[7]
Essentially they are the “Borg,” from Star Trek the Next Generation. The Borg were the race of biological being augmented by machines that sought total domination of the universe.[8] They do actually advocate all assortments of augmentation for intellectual capability and bodily limitations. Their greatest value is what Bostrom calls “the post human relam.”[9] Looking to end humanity and move beyond it. To soften the blow they talk about how they share the values of humanism, but humaists want to prolong humanity so that the value will be consistent, the transhumanists want to end humanity and somehow believe the values will remain consistent. Leslie Fain, writing for Catholic World Report, finds that they are going to enhance everything from genetic life span to physical speed, they will become a new species. “Transhumanists, in general, aren’t too worried about this,” she quotes  Michael Cook, editor of MercatorNet,
“Their future will divide homo sapiens into two sub-species, the gen-poor (genetically poor) and the gen-rich. To me, it’s a bit like the ghastly scenario envisaged by H.G. Wells in The Time Machine—a world divided into the Eloi and the Morlochs.”
The transhumanism narrative is becoming more mainstream. Pop culture references and commercials (such as this one from Verizon) hyping men and women becoming “one” with their latest technological toys abound; last year an Italian transhumanist was elected to parliament.[10]
With this hyper technology augmenting a new species and moving beyond the old humanity, what’s going to lead them beyond the old sin nature? What’s going to assure that we wont wind up with a have-augmentation and Have-not augmentation culture?
            Transhumanism has not only bonded with atheism but produced a sort of fundamentalist segment. Zoltan Istavon, in huff post, who proclaims that “I am an atheist therefore I am a transhumanist.”
Sometime in the next decade, the number of worldwide godless people -- atheists, agnostics, and those unaffiliated with religion -- is likely to break through the billion-person mark. Many in this massive group already champion reason, defend science, welcome radical technologies, and implicitly trust and embrace modern medicine. They are, indeed, already transhumanists. Yet many of them don't know it because they haven't thought much about it. However, that is about to change. A transformative cultural storm comprised of radical life improving technologies is set to blow in soon.[11]
He is assuming that all non-affiliated are atheists, which is a mistaken assumption. These guys believe in reason that means none us old fashioned humans who believe in God believe in reason. We stupid old Christians don’t trust medicine. If this radical cultural storm waves the flag of destruction of humanity in this way as a badge of commitment to atheist ideology humanity is truly in trouble. The transhmanists are part of the scientistic ideology because they have come to accept the notion that science is the only form of knowledge and all value and truth must be shaped around that.
            The dangers of scientism and the loss of humanity have been lurking over modernity for a long time. These things go way back to the nineteenth century. What we see emerging today as the perils brought on by scientism is just the modern outcome of trends that were engaged by Albert Schweitzer as early as 1900. Schweitzer is all but forgotten today. He’s mainly remembered as a great humanitarian who went to Africa to nurse the poor. In the early part of the twentieth century and up to the 1960s he was given huge respect one of the most profoundly brilliant and great men of human history. Schweitzer had four brilliant careers going at the same time. He was a theologian, philosopher, Bible Scholar and concert musician. In addition to all that he built organs. After having achieved greatness with his book Quest of the Historical Jesus[12] he went to medical school and became a doctor. Then he went to Africa and spent his life nursing the poorest of the poor. One thing he did not do even in leaving civilization was to give up on civilization. He wrote one of the first philosophies of civilization and was one of the first philosophers to seriously argue for animal rights. As early as 1900 Schweitzer already argued that civilization was dead and we lived in barbarism. The reason, because civilization is more than just indoor plumbing and modern inventions it is an ideal about the quality of life in affording the individual purist of his/her cherished goals. Yet modern life negates the individual and reduces ideals and personal concepts of freedom to matters of taste and eccentricity. Schweitzer identified that process by which this reduction takes place.[13] The forces that Schweitzer traces as the collapse of civilization may well have culminated in World War I.
           Schweitzer anticipated the work of Karl Jaspers, C. Wright Mills and Herbert Marcuse, thinkers who flourished five decades after he began his thinking on civilization. Karl Jaspers reflected upon the end of Western civilization in Man In The Modern Age, likening it to the end of Hellenism before the dark ages.[14] For Jaspers, the current phase in modernity (the 1920s) marked the turning point from human pursuits such as discursive reasoning, thought, understanding, and artistic production, to the dominance of a highly organized super-structure based upon reducing content to "technique." Art becomes "mere amusement and pleasure (instead of an emblem of transcendence), science becomes mere concern for technical utility (instead of the satisfaction of a primary will to know).[15] He warned that the growing tendency to "wrap the world in apparatus," the building of a giant inter-connected infrastructure based entirely on calculation, would have a deleterious effect upon humanity. According to Jaspers, society faces the extinction of those qualities and aspirations which have always defined humanity, such as rational discourse and ethical norms. These warnings seem quaint when one considers that they were made before regular air travel in the days of radio. It may be that at each stage in technical development, society becomes more habituated to technique, closed in a technological womb that grows ever more content with closed possibilities for qualitative change. The contemporary litany of dangers, ecological destruction of the planet, the failure of the educational system, growing violence, and governmental control, should bare out the realization that society is complacent in the face of growing peril. Jasper's notion that discursive reasoning was being replaced by technique anticipates the work of C. Wright Mills in the 1950s.
            Mills was a sociologist at Columbia University in New York. He is best known for his work The Power Elite.[16] It is from that work that we take the popular phrase of the 1960s, “military industrial complex.” In The Sociological Imagination[17] he explodes the illusions by which the power elite cover their own lack of understanding. His message there is that not only does the system run over the individual but even those who are in charge of it are dragged along by its momentum and don’t really know where they are going. Mills was one of the first thinkers to use the term "post-modern" (which he hyphenated). For Mills, writing in the '50s, modernity had already passed away, post-modernity had dawned. "The ideological mark...[of the post-modern epoch] --that which sets it apart from the modern age-- is that the ideas of freedom and of reason have become moot; that increased rationality may not be assumed to make for increased freedom."[18] As with Schweitzer, Mills reflects that the technological structure separates people from control over or reflection upon the ends of their lives. "Caught in the everyday milieux of their limited lives, ordinary people cannot reason about the greater structures both rational and irrational of which their milieu are subordinate parts."[19] (168).
The individual learns not to reason, but to rationalize the goals and ends of life, and his or her position in the overall scheme of things. Given...the ascendant trend of rationalization, the individual 'does what he can.' He gears his aspirations and his work to the situation he is in and from which he can find no way out. In due course he does not seek a way out: he adapts. That part of his life which is left over from work he uses to play, to consume, to have fun. Yet this sphere of consumption is also being rationalized. Alienated from production, from work, he is also alienated from consumption, from genuine leisure. This adaptation of the individual and its effects upon his milieux and self results not only in the loss of his chance, but in due course of his capacity and will to reason; it also affects his chances and his capacity to act as a free [person]. Indeed, neither the value of freedom nor of reason, it would seem, are known to him.[20]
The end result, according to Mills, is that society becomes filled with "cheerful robots," those who obey the programming of technique and cannot seek alternatives.[21] Mills charged that the social sciences help to further the aims and methods of technique, hiding behind the " scientific objectivity," unwilling to mount any critique. Mills anticipates Herbert Marcuse's work, written in 1964, One-Dimensional Man.
  photo GHMC_zps294ecee6.jpg
Herbert Marcuse (1898-1979)
 warned of rise of one-dimensional 
            Herbert Marcuse (July 19, 1898 – July 29, 1979) was a German academic who fled to America to avoid the Nazis in the 30s. He worked for the OAS during the war and latter become the major intellectual powerhouse behind the New Left of the 1960s. He was based in San Diego where the taught, Ronald Reagan tried to have his Doctorate revoked to silence his criticisms of the war and the establishment. He was a Marxist, some say Neo-Marxist he was critical of Stalin and called a revisionist by Stalinists. Marcuse was best known for his seminal work One-Dimensional Man (1964), one of the greatest books of the era and one of primary importance for the century. In One-Dimensional Man, Marcuse argues that affluent capitalist society has been good at providing primary needs to a mass population (despite continuing poverty for some) and it has created a bourgeois society that perpetuates false needs. The American worker has bought into his place in the capitalist order as a cog in the machine, or a bit of overhead for the owners of the means of production, because in exchange will continue to supply the false needs upon which he has become admitted; that is the material trammels of an affluent society.
...The irresistible output of the entertainment and information industry carry with them prescribed attitudes and habits...The products indoctrinate and manipulate; they promote a false consciousness which is immune against falsehood. And as these beneficial products have become available to more individuals, in more social classes, the indoctrination they carry ceases to be publicity; it becomes a way of life. It is a good way of life' much better than before and as a good way of life, it militates against qualitative change. Thus emerges a pattern of one-dimensional thought and behavior, in which ideas, aspirations, and objectives that, by their content, transcend the established universe of discourse and action are either repelled or reduced to terms of this [social-political] universe. They are re-defined by the rationality of the given system and of its quantitative extension.[22] (12).
The prognosis for one-dimensional man doesn’t end with just supporting capitalism as the basis of false needs. The whole concept of being a thinking person who lives in a society in which thinking people can determine their own lives is called into question and in fact done away with because the concept of freedom is illusory and not scientific. The scientistic crowd is telling us that freedom is a trick. The issues of one-dimensional man don’t stop Marxism because there is more to power than just capital vs labor, or capitalism vs. Marxism. Lurking behind the accumulation of false needs (technological version of bread and circuses) is operational thinking. This is what Marcuse means by "quantitative extension of the given system" (quotation above). " The trend [one-dimensional consumer society] may be related to a development in scientific method: operationalism in the physical, behaviorism in the social sciences. The common feature is a total empiricism in the treatment of concepts; their meaning is restricted to the representation of particular operations and behavior...In general, we mean by a concept nothing more than a set of operations...a positivism which, in its denial of the transcending elements of reason, forms the academic counterpart to the socially required behavior."[23] The positivist and reductionist tendencies of contemporary scientific thought, which props up the technostructure and furnishes it with "empirical proof," works to eliminate all concepts that cannot be quantified, and therefore, eventually ”commodified.”
            Stanly Aronowitz wrote Science as Power, in which he argues two things: power is possessed by a process of legitimating, and science has lent itself to that legitimating at the expense of all other forms of truth.[24] In other words power is not merely taken by a group or an institution but it is built through a process of self legitimating moves. That process is part of the means by which modern science procures funding and perpetuates itself in modern society; by being of use to power through lending itself to the development of the means of power. We see this explicitly through the military but more subtly through industry and the development of technology, the status of scientific funding in the university and so on. In lending itself to power as an enforcement mechanism science subsumes other views and other concepts of truth. This process is inherent since science has always provided a certain aspect of truth in revealing the mechanism through which the natural world functions. Apart form the cultural currying of power, Aronowitz finds, science has an intrinsic power in its conflation of truth and knowledge. “Devising a method of proving the validity of propositions about objects taken as external to the knower has become identical with what we mean by ‘truth.’” [25] In other words science purports to tell us how the physical world stacks up and wont allow any other method to introduce other kinds of truth that it would consider authoritative, that becomes all there is in the world, the physical set up that science can study and quantify. The process by which modern though came to understand itself as its own object, from Plato’s observation of truth as self representing, to Hegel’s notion that consciousness takes itself as its own object, is done away by modern science. [26] Perhaps that’s why atheists have such abhorrence for the subjective. We can’t trust our own perceptions we can only trust that which is produced by the scientific method. The problem is so much of modern science is not procured through the process of empirical verification that is the hallmark of modern science, but must be reached though calculation, in terms of modern quantum theory for example. Then truth comes to be a rubber stamp placed upon “truth” by science. As Aronowitz points out, “Science is truth, and can for this reason represent itself by means of its procedures…self criticism of science is conducted within the boundaries of its own normative structures.”[27]
            The thinkers from Schweitzer to Marcuse and Aronowitz they are all building on the indicators of civilization in decay that Schweitzer originally saw. By the time we get to the end of the twentieth century they are so far gone one dimensional man is established. We are now working on moving from one-dimensional to cheerful robot. There’s a snowball relationship in that the scientistic mentality creates the situation then feeds off of it. Knowledge is reduced to one thing, science, then that one thing is transmogrified from knowledge to technique, or illusion of technique. Finally humanity itself is displaced as freedom is reduced to just anther false need. That is to say freedom becomes confused with the products one buys and with the process of choosing products. The concept of freedom itself is ratcheted down from a personal philosophical understanding of the goals and ends of one’s life to purchasing power to obedience. The real discourse becomes closed around the one possibility left to us, which is how best to obey. When the only form of knowledge is science knowledge of freedom must disappear, there is no freedom in science. The concept of freedom requires a substantial conceptual background to cover all the bases. We have to understand the parameters of freedom, the possibilities, the impediments to freedom, balancing freedom against responsibility and so on. When the only form of knowledge is about the facts of nature and how they work there’s no room for an abstraction like ‘possible freedom.’
Separation from God.
            For those of us who feel we know the reality of God in our lives, this is a great harm. It would rob those who don’t know that reality of the ability to ever learn. Reduction of knowledge to only scientific knowledge, ala the ideological administration of scientism, robs us of knowing God because it reduces religious experience to the level of the “subjective” the emotional, these are greatly things to be avoided in the ideology of scientism. Scienstism portrays itself as rational and objective it places all that does not bow before it in the category of the irrational and the subjective. We have already seen the way new atheism rationalizes scientific protocols to manipulate “God does not exist” into a scientific fact, via Austin Cline (see above FN 7).  To reprise that statement:
"this alleged entity has no place in any scientific equations, plays no role in any scientific explanations, cannot be used to predict any events, does not describe any thing or force that has yet been detected, and there are no models of the universe in which its presence is either required, productive, or useful." [28]
But that’s just circular reasoning because it assumes at the outset that since there is no argument that is deemed acceptable scientifically, there can be no warrant for belief in God. As long as the only form of knowledge is science then the only valid argument is scientific. While there are valid scientifically based arguments for God (see chapters nine and ten) there is no “fact” accepted in science such that “God exists.” Therefore, any argument for the existence of God is met with “that’s disproved before we start because it’s not science.” Cutting off other forms of knowledge the gate keepers of scientific acuity merely denounce warrant for belief based upon their own prejudices. Based upon that assumption it is deemed “unscientific” to argue for such a warrant. In fact what I’m saying is that scientists are human and they embody the same prejudices as anyone. That has to be ignored when the only from of knowledge is science because the human factor is not part of the scientific process. Thus belief in God is removed from reality by a series of protocols that amount to nothing more than jumped up ideology.
God belief and the realm of discourse
            Belief in God is more than just belief in an entity. It’s also the basis for rejecting the closed realm of discourse. This is true for two reasons, (1) because as the Transcendental signified God sets in motion the basic first principles that serve as premises of logic. God determines the basis upon which truth is held, since God alone is the ultimate creator then God alone is the final assigner of meaning. Thus the realm of discourse can never be truly closed by temporal power or human concerns. (2) Because in a practical sense the open nature of discourse depends to a great deal upon the understanding of technique. When we come to vest the illusion of technique with all power and all logic then we vest it with all right. That’s when we start thinking its right to pursue actions merely because we have the physical prowess to do so. As long as God is understood as the orbiter of truth no human technique affords one the efficacy to close the realm of discourse around any one social project. An example of what I’m talking about is the case of a worker in stem cell research who was injured by the technology but was denied direct medical care. “I was denied directed medical care for exposures from dangerous embryonic stem technologies incurred while at work. Unbelievably, I was denied under the premise that ‘trade secrets’ supersede a worker’s right to specific exposure information. Welcome to the embryonic stem cell world, a world of legal quagmire where human rights and public rights are slated toward the chopping block.”[29]
In fact, the public has been fooled. The embryonic stem cell research industry is far from the altruistic persona it has painted itself to be. Rather, embryonic stem cell research is about big money, first and foremost. It is about securing a position of power within the economic and legal mainstream of the American public. That is why biotech worker’s rights regarding safety and healthcare have been denied. That is why, unfortunately, the public’s right will be denied too.

And the media has not helped. The media has purposely turned the human embryonic stem cell debate into a polarized “religion versus science” contest.

But issues lying in-between those two polarities contain much of the tainted meat that can negatively impact the public toward human rights. These concerns get no media attention. The public remains ignorant. In fact, the public lacks an understanding of the legal, social and cultural effects that could negatively impact them as advanced technologies move forward.[30]
What’s the link from science as the only form of knowledge and this case? The realm of discourse is closed around the illusion of technique. Ethical consideration disappear because we have the technology we know how to do it, it’s sanctioned by the thinking experts who make decisions for us. These are the guys that know stuff, there’s no knowledge outside of science, these are scientists so they must know all about ethics and if they do can do it, must be good to do.

tune in Monday for 3d and final part in
"Atheist Reduction of Knowledge to Science."

[1] Ibid.
[2] Picco della Mirandola, Oration on the Dignity of man, quoted in Nick Bostrom, A History of Transhumanist Though. Pdf  accessed 1/1/14. originally published in The Journal of Evolution and Technology, vol 14, issue 1, April 2005., 2.
Bostrom is a philosopher who teaches at Oxford and the edition of Mirandola used is:Chicago, Gateway Editions  1956.
[3] Ibid, 5.
[4] James Hughes, Citizen Cyborg: Why Democratic Societies Must Respond to the Redesigned Human of the Future. Cambridge Mass: West View Press, 2004, 155
Huges is a sociologist and bioethicist. He’s been involved in the transhumaist movement since before 2004, he was ordained a Buddhist monk in the 80s.
[5] Nick Bostrom, “Ethical Issues for the 21st  Century,” Philosophical Documentation Center Press, Ed. Frederick Adams,  2003, 3-14.
[6] Ibid.
[7] Ibid., 4.
[8] find
[9] Bostrom, Ethical Issues..Op Cit., 8.
[10] Leslie Fain, “The Surprising spread and Cultural Impact of Transhumanism.” Catholic World Report, Oct 3, (2013). Blong, online   accessed 1/3/14.
[11] Zoltan Istvan, “I am an Atheist Therefore I am a Transhumaist.” Huff Post The Blog, 12/5/13. on line
Istvan Is a self proclaimed “visionary.”
[12] Albert Schweitzer, The Quest of the Historical Jesus: A Critical Study of Its Progress from Reimarus to Wrede. New York: MacMillan, originally 1906, MacMillan paperbacks 1961, eighth printing, 1973.
[13] J.L. Hinman, “Albert Schweitzer On The Death of Civilization.” Negations: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Social Criticism. No 3. (Winter 1998). On line copy, accessed 1/4/14.
See also: Albert Schweitzer, The Philosophy of Civilization. Translated C.T. Campion, Buffalo, New York: Prometheus Books. 1980 (original German pulbication 1923). The work is divided into two sections, the "Decay and Restoration of Civilization," and "Ethics and Civilization." Unwin has published the first section as an independent volume entitled The Decay and Restoration of Civilization.
[14] Jaspers, Karl. Man In The Modern Age. New York: Doubleday, 1957, 20.
[15] Ibid., 137.
[16] C Wright Mills, the Power Elite. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1956. No page given.
[17] C. Wright Mills, The Sociological Imagination. New York, London: Oxford University Press, 1967 (originally 1959)
[18] Ibid, 167
[19] Ibid., 168
[20] Ibid., 170
[21] Ibid., 171
[22] Herbert Marcuse, One-Dimensional Man: Studies in the Ideology of Advanced Industrial Soceity. Boston: Beacon Press, 1964, 12.
[23] Ibid.
[24] Stanley Aronowitz, Science as Power: Discourse and Ideology In Modern Society. Minneapolis Minnesota: University of Minnesota Press, 1988, ix.
Stanley Aronotwitz is professor of Sociology and cultural studies at CUNY Graduate Center, New York. He is a long time cultural critic and political activist.
[25] Ibid., vii.
[26] Ibid.
[27] Ibid., viii the idea about quantum physics he states on page ix
[28] Austin Cline, “Scientifically God Does Not Exist: Science allows us to say God Does not Exist, there is role for God in science, no explanation that God can provide.”, Agnosticism/Atehism. Online publication:  accessed 12/27/13.
[29] Becky A. McClain, “Embryonic Stem Cell Research Funding Threatens Human Rights and Public Interests.” Watchdog on Science. On line resource. Septermber 14, (2010).   
accessed. 1/15/14.
[30] Ibid.

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